Snowden Online Inhaltsverzeichnis
SNOWDEN, der internationale Thriller von Oscar®-Preisträger Oliver Stone, bringt das Leben des kontrovers Format: Prime Video (streaming online video). Edward Snowden hat gerade seine Memoiren vorgelegt. Im Podcast ZEIT Bühne spricht er über den "Deep State", falsch verstandenes. Von denen viele ganz selbstständig online kommunizieren.“” Dazu datenspuren-internet-snowden-prism-tempora [zuletzt eingesehen am: ]. Oliver Stone verfilmt die Story von Edward Snowden und seinen Enthüllungen. Der erste Trailer lässt nichts Gutes erwarten, ist aber immerhin für einige Lacher. Laut Guardian-Interview habe Snowden auch in Betracht gezogen, politisches Asyl in Island zu beantragen, da es die Freiheit im Internet achte und die gleichen.
Der Meister des amerikanischen Kinos, Oliver Stone ("Nixon", "JFK - Tatort Dallas", "Platoon"), verfilmte die Geschichte Edward Snowdens, der eine der. Oliver Stone verfilmt die Story von Edward Snowden und seinen Enthüllungen. Der erste Trailer lässt nichts Gutes erwarten, ist aber immerhin für einige Lacher. Wo genau sich Snowden aufhält, ist nicht bekannt. dem Absenden des Kommentars erkennen Sie unsere Online-Nutzungsbedingungen an.
In January , Snowden said his "breaking point" was "seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress.
Seeing that really meant for me there was no going back. Beyond that, it was the creeping realization that no one else was going to do this.
The public had a right to know about these programs. In May , Snowden took a leave of absence, telling his supervisors he was returning to the mainland for epilepsy treatment, but instead left Hawaii for Hong Kong  where he arrived on May Snowden told Guardian reporters in June that he had been in his room at the Mira Hotel since his arrival in the city, rarely going out.
Snowden vowed to challenge any extradition attempt by the U. Glenn Greenwald said Snowden was motivated by a need to "ingratiate himself to the people of Hong Kong and China.
After leaving the Mira Hotel, Snowden was housed for two weeks in a number of apartments by other refugees seeking asylum in Hong Kong, an arrangement set up by Tibbo to hide from the US authorities.
They haven't been able to, because it's false. State Department spokesman rejected the explanation of technical noncompliance, accusing the Hong Kong government of deliberately releasing a fugitive despite a valid arrest warrant and after having sufficient time to prohibit his travel.
In October , Snowden said that before flying to Moscow, he gave all the classified documents he had obtained to journalists he met in Hong Kong, and kept no copies for himself.
In January , Vanessa Rodel, one of the refugees who had housed Snowden in Hong Kong, and her 7-year-old daughter were granted asylum by Canada.
Five other people who helped Snowden still remain in Hong Kong awaiting a response to their asylum request.
He asserted "a planeload of reporters documented the seat I was supposed to be in" when he was ticketed for Havana , but the U.
According to Greenwald, Snowden's passport was valid when he departed Hong Kong but was revoked during the hours he was in transit to Moscow, preventing him from obtaining a ticket to leave Russia.
Greenwald said Snowden was thus forced to stay in Moscow and seek asylum. According to one Russian report, Snowden planned to fly from Moscow through Havana to Latin America; however, Cuba told Moscow it would not allow the Aeroflot plane carrying Snowden to land.
Following Snowden's arrival in Moscow, the White House expressed disappointment in Hong Kong's decision to allow him to leave.
Secretary of State John Kerry said that Snowden's passport was cancelled "within two hours" of the charges against Snowden being made public  which was Friday, June Without any judicial order, the administration now seeks to stop me exercising a basic right.
A right that belongs to everybody. The right to seek asylum. Snowden said in July that he decided to bid for asylum in Russia because he felt there was no safe way to reach Latin America.
On the issue, he said "some governments in Western European and North American states have demonstrated a willingness to act outside the law, and this behavior persists today.
This unlawful threat makes it impossible for me to travel to Latin America and enjoy the asylum granted there in accordance with our shared rights.
Four months after Snowden received asylum in Russia, Julian Assange commented, "While Venezuela and Ecuador could protect him in the short term, over the long term there could be a change in government.
In Russia, he's safe, he's well-regarded, and that is not likely to change. That was my advice to Snowden, that he would be physically safest in Russia.
In an October interview with The Nation magazine, Snowden reiterated that he had originally intended to travel to Latin America: "A lot of people are still unaware that I never intended to end up in Russia.
They did not want that; they chose to keep me in Russia. On July 1, , president Evo Morales of Bolivia , who had been attending a conference in Russia, suggested during an interview with Russia Today that he would consider a request by Snowden for asylum.
While the plane was parked in Vienna, the Spanish ambassador to Austria arrived with two embassy personnel and asked to search the plane but they were denied permission by Morales himself.
Assange responded that "we weren't expecting this outcome. The result was caused by the United States' intervention. We can only regret what happened.
Snowden applied for political asylum to.. Biden had telephoned President Rafael Correa days prior to Snowden's remarks, asking the Ecuadorian leader not to grant Snowden asylum.
After evaluating the law and Snowden's situation, the French interior ministry rejected his request for asylum. Germany and India rejected Snowden's application outright, while Austria, Ecuador, Finland, Norway, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain said he must be on their territory to apply.
Putin said on July 1, , that if Snowden wanted to be granted asylum in Russia , he would be required to "stop his work aimed at harming our American partners.
In a July 12 meeting at Sheremetyevo Airport with representatives of human rights organizations and lawyers, organized in part by the Russian government,  Snowden said he was accepting all offers of asylum that he had already received or would receive.
He added that Venezuela's grant of asylum formalized his asylee status, removing any basis for state interference with his right to asylum.
Amid media reports in early July attributed to U. Attorney General Eric Holder repudiated Snowden's claim to refugee status, and offered a limited validity passport good for direct return to the U.
On June 14, , United States federal prosecutors filed a criminal complaint  against Snowden, charging him with three felonies: theft of government property and two counts of violating the Espionage Act of 18 U.
Each of the three charges carries a maximum possible prison term of ten years. The criminal complaint was initially secret, but was unsealed a week later.
Stephen P. Mulligan and Jennifer K. Elsea , Legislative attorneys for the Congressional Research Service , provide a analysis  of the uses of the Espionage Act to prosecute unauthorized disclosures of classified information, based on what was disclosed, to whom, and how; the burden of proof requirements e.
The analysis includes the charges against Snowden, among several other cases. The discussion also covers gaps in the legal framework used to prosecute such cases.
Snowden was asked in a January interview about returning to the U. Snowden explained why he rejected the request:. What he doesn't say are that the crimes that he's charged me with are crimes that don't allow me to make my case.
They don't allow me to defend myself in an open court to the public and convince a jury that what I did was to their benefit. So it's, I would say, illustrative that the President would choose to say someone should face the music when he knows the music is a show trial.
Snowden's legal representative, Jesselyn Radack , wrote that "the Espionage Act effectively hinders a person from defending himself before a jury in an open court.
Non-profit betrayals were not considered. Henry Holt and Company and Holtzbrink , as relief-defendants. He was not granted permanent political asylum.
As of October , Snowden had been granted permanent residency in Russia, which is renewed every three years.
He secretly married Lindsay Mills in By he no longer felt the need to be disguised in public and lived what was described as a "more or less normal life", able to travel around Russia and make a living from speaking arrangements locally and over the internet.
His memoir Permanent Record was released internationally, and while U. They want the same things that you do. A subject of controversy, Snowden has been variously called a hero,    a whistleblower ,     a dissident ,  a patriot ,    and a traitor.
Richard J. Leon had ruled in a contemporaneous case before him, that the NSA warrantless surveillance program was likely unconstitutional ; Wiebe then proposed that Snowden should be granted amnesty and allowed to return to the United States.
Numerous high-ranking current or former U. In the U. In June , U. Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont shared a "must read" news story on his blog by Ron Fournier , stating "Love him or hate him, we all owe Snowden our thanks for forcing upon the nation an important debate.
But the debate shouldn't be about him. It should be about the gnawing questions his actions raised from the shadows.
Snowden said in December that he was "inspired by the global debate" ignited by the leaks and that NSA's "culture of indiscriminate global espionage At the end of , however, The Washington Post noted that the public debate and its offshoots had produced no meaningful change in policy, with the status quo continuing.
In , on The Axe Files podcast , former U. Attorney General Eric Holder said that Snowden "performed a public service by raising the debate that we engaged in and by the changes that we made.
In September , the bipartisan U. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence completed a review of the Snowden disclosures and said that the federal government would have to spend millions of dollars responding to the fallout from Snowden's disclosures.
In August , President Obama said that he had called for a review of U. Stone said there was no evidence that the bulk collection of phone data had stopped any terror attacks.
On June 6, , in the wake of Snowden's leaks, conservative public interest lawyer and Judicial Watch founder Larry Klayman filed a lawsuit claiming that the federal government had unlawfully collected metadata for his telephone calls and was harassing him.
In Klayman v. Obama , Judge Richard J. Leon referred to the NSA's "almost-Orwellian technology" and ruled the bulk telephone metadata program to be probably unconstitutional.
Snowden later described Judge Leon's decision as vindication. Pauley III came to the opposite conclusion. In ACLU v.
Clapper , although acknowledging that privacy concerns are not trivial, Pauley found that the potential benefits of surveillance outweigh these considerations and ruled that the NSA's collection of phone data is legal.
Gary Schmitt , former staff director of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence , wrote that "The two decisions have generated public confusion over the constitutionality of the NSA's data collection program—a kind of judicial 'he-said, she-said' standoff.
The decision voided U. District Judge William Pauley's December finding that the NSA program was lawful, and remanded the case to him for further review.
The appeals court did not rule on the constitutionality of the bulk surveillance, and declined to enjoin the program, noting the pending expiration of relevant parts of the Patriot Act.
Circuit Judge Gerard E. Lynch wrote that, given the national security interests at stake, it was prudent to give Congress an opportunity to debate and decide the matter.
On June 2, , the U. Senate passed, and President Obama signed, the USA Freedom Act which restored in modified form several provisions of the Patriot Act that had expired the day before, while for the first time imposing some limits on the bulk collection of telecommunication data on U.
The new restrictions were widely seen as stemming from Snowden's revelations. In an official report published in October , the United Nations special rapporteur for the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of speech, Professor David Kaye , criticized the U.
The report found that Snowden's revelations were important for people everywhere and made "a deep and lasting impact on law, policy and politics.
By mid, Snowden had applied for asylum in 21 counties, including Europe and South America,   obtaining negative responses in most cases.
Snowden applied for asylum in Austria ,  Italy  and Switzerland. Swiss media said that the Swiss Attorney General had determined that Switzerland would not extradite Snowden if the US request were considered "politically motivated".
Switzerland would grant Snowden Snowden asylum if he revealed the extent of espionage activities by the United States government. According to the paper Sonntags Zeitung , Snowden would be granted safe entry and residency in Switzerland, in return for his knowledge of American intelligence activities.
Swiss paper Le Matin reported that Sbowden's activity could be part of criminal proceedings or part of a parliamentary inquiry.
Extradition would also be rejected if Snowdon faced the death penalty , for which the United States has already provided assurances.
The felony charges with which Snowden is charged, each a maximum of 10 years imprisonment. As reported in Der Bund , upper level Swiss government could create an obstacle.
On September 16, , it was reported that Snowden had said he "would love" to get political asylum in France. However, no other members the French government were known to express support for Snowden's asylum request, possibly due to the potential adverse diplomatic consequences.
According to Finnish foreign ministry spokeswoman Tytti Pylkko , Snowden made an asylum request to Finland by sending an application to the Finnish embassy in Moscow , while he was confined to the transit area of the Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow , but was told that Finnish law required him to be on Finnish soil.
Sweden ultimately rejected Snowden's asylum however, so the award was accepted by his father Lons Snowden, on his behalf.
Snowden was granted a freedom of speech award by the Oslo branch of the writer's group PEN Internationall.
He applied for asylum in Norway  but Norwegian Justice Secretary Paul Loenseth insisted that the application be made on Norwegian soil and further expressed doubt that Snowden met the criteria for gaining asylum - being "important for foreign political reasons".
Snowden then filed a lawsuit for free passage through Norway in order to receiver his freedom of speech award, through Oslo's District Court, followed by an appeals court, and finally Norway's Supreme Court.
The lawsuit was ultimately rejected by the Norwegian Supreme Court. The non-binding resolution denounced unwarranted digital surveillance and included a symbolic declaration of the right of all individuals to online privacy.
Surveys conducted by news outlets and professional polling organizations found that American public opinion was divided on Snowden's disclosures, and that those polled in Canada and Europe were more supportive of Snowden than respondents in the U.
For his global surveillance disclosures, Snowden has been honored by publications and organizations based in Europe and the United States.
He was voted as The Guardian ' s person of the year , garnering four times the number of votes as any other candidate.
He participated by teleconference carried over multiple routers running the Google Hangouts platform. Represented on stage by a robot with a video screen, video camera, microphones and speakers, Snowden conversed with TED curator Chris Anderson , and told the attendees that online businesses should act quickly to encrypt their websites.
In March , while speaking at the FIFDH international human rights film festival he made a public appeal for Switzerland to grant him asylum, saying he would like to return to live in Geneva, where he once worked undercover for the Central Intelligence Agency.
On March 19, , Snowden delivered the opening keynote address of the LibrePlanet conference, a meeting of international free software activists and developers presented by the Free Software Foundation.
The conference was held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was the first such time Snowden spoke via teleconference using a full free software stack, end-to-end.
On July 21, , Snowden and hardware hacker Bunnie Huang , in a talk at MIT Media Lab 's Forbidden Research event, published research for a smartphone case, the so-called Introspection Engine , that would monitor signals received and sent by that phone to provide an alert to the user if his or her phone is transmitting or receiving information when it shouldn't be for example when it's turned off or in airplane mode , a feature described by Snowden to be useful for journalists or activists operating under hostile governments that would otherwise track their activities through their phones.
In July , media critic Jay Rosen defined The Snowden Effect as "Direct and indirect gains in public knowledge from the cascade of events and further reporting that followed Edward Snowden's leaks of classified information about the surveillance state in the U.
On November 2, , Snowden provided a court declaration in Jewel v. National Security Agency. Snowden's impact as a public figure has been felt in cinema,  television,  advertising,  video games,   literature,   music,    statuary,   and social media.
The film Snowden , based on Snowden's leaking of classified US government material, directed by Oliver Stone and written by Stone and Kieran Fitzgerald, was released in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
American whistleblower and former National Security Agency contractor. Elizabeth City, North Carolina , U. Lindsay Mills m.
Map of global NSA data collection. ACLU v. NSA Hepting v. NSA Clapper v. Amnesty Klayman v.
Obama ACLU v. Clapper Wikimedia v. Main article: Global surveillance disclosures —present. Play media. Main article: Evo Morales grounding incident.
Main article: Edward Snowden asylum in Russia. Main article: Reactions to global surveillance disclosures. See also: Commentary on Edward Snowden's disclosure.
Main article: Commentary on Edward Snowden's disclosure. Main article: Awards received by Edward Snowden. Main article: Snowden effect.
Main article: Edward Snowden in popular culture. Biography portal Freedom of speech portal United States portal Politics portal.
Yuen explained that Snowden's full name was inconsistent, and his U. Yuen said he spoke to U. Attorney General Eric Holder by phone to reinforce the request for details "absolutely necessary" for detention of Snowden.
Yuen said "As the US government had failed to provide the information by the time Snowden left Hong Kong, it was impossible for the Department of Justice to apply to a court for a temporary warrant of arrest.
In fact, even at this time, the US government has still not provided the details we asked for. Vanity Fair. Retrieved April 29, The Washington Post.
Retrieved April 11, CBS News. Retrieved October 19, Retrieved October 23, December 14, The New York Times.
House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. September 15, Retrieved June 10, Rio De Janeiro: Associated Press.
Retrieved September 14, The Guardian. Retrieved September 18, UK ban of Spycatcher 50 years ago created huge demand" Tweet.
Retrieved October 19, — via Twitter. My mistake" Tweet. Deutsche Welle. September 17, Democracy Now! Retrieved September 27, The army did confirm Snowden's date of birth: 21 June Associated Press.
July 24, Archived from the original on August 22, August 1, Archived from the original on October 19, United States Coast Guard.
NBC News. The Morning Call. Allentown, PA. Archived from the original on November 1, The Christian Science Monitor.
June 10, The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on June 13, USA Today. Washington, D. Archived from the original on April 2, Retrieved March 10, Leheigh Valley Express Times.
Retrieved December 3, ABC News. Archived from the original on December 19, Japan Times. Archived from the original on June 15, Ars Technica.
Retrieved October 24, New Republic. Retrieved October 20, October 28, The Nation. Permanent Record. UK: Macmillan. Department of Defense.
Archived from the original on June 26, Retrieved May 20, University spokesman Brian Ullmann confirmed that in , Snowden worked for less than a year as a 'security specialist' for the school's Center for Advanced Study of Language.
The university-affiliated center, founded in , is not a classified facility. Campus Reform.
Archived from the original on May 9, International Business Times. Retrieved January 30, No Place to Hide.
Metropolitan Books. Handelszeitung in German. South China Morning Post. Retrieved December 2, New York. June 30, Archived from the original on July 4, The Courage Foundation.
January 27, The Wall Street Journal. Hong Kong. Time Inc. Retrieved February 14, Courage Foundation. Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved January 4, The New Yorker.
The Hill. June 25, Rede Globo in Portuguese. June 1, June 9, Retrieved June 7, September 16, New York: Columbia University Press.
In Mistry, Kaeten; Gurman, Hannah eds. Retrieved June 9, The Australian. Retrieved February 1, August 30, Secrets Ever: Rogers".
Bloomberg News. Vice News. Retrieved June 4, Australian Financial Review. Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved May 30, Washington: New York Times.
Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved September 30, June 29, The Times. BBC News. June 14, Henry Jackson Society.
Channel 4. Retrieved January 20, Rolling Stone. Spiegel Online. July 8, Archived from the original on July 6, Retrieved December 18, Los Angeles Times.
NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden: 'I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things' video.
Al Jazeera. July 19, Electronic Frontier Foundation. November 19, Retrieved December 14, Retrieved January 29, Retrieved April 25, The Huffington Post.
Retrieved April 17, Retrieved June 12, Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 13, July 10, Le Monde.
Archived from the original on August 30, August 29, PC World. Huffington Post. December 3, The Sydney Morning Herald.
October 25, McClatchy DC. NBC Bay Area. Der Spiegel. June 21, September 7, Home Movies Snowden Movies.
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Snowden Online - 2 KommentareBadisches Staatstheater Karlsruhe. Army , um im Irak-Krieg zu dienen. Oktober Zwischen den beiden Phasen seines Studiums meldete er sich zur U. Interessantes Detail sind aber zum Beispiel die Überlegungen, auf welche Weise die Wahrheit am besten ans Licht gebracht werden könne. Juni National Magazine. The website's critical consensus reads, " Snowden boasts a thrilling fact-based tale and a solid lead performance from Joseph Gordon-Levitt, even Snowden Online director Oliver Stone saps the story of some of its impact by Uci KГ¶ln it safe. June 29, Talking Points Memo. Alex Marquez Lee Percy. The NSA's top-secret black budgetobtained from Snowden by The Washington Postexposed the successes and failures of the 16 spy agencies comprising the U. Of his time as an NSA analyst, directing the work of others, Snowden recalled a moment when he and his colleagues began to have severe ethical doubts. ACLU v. Our Team of Great Thinkers Innovation starts with people.
He advises Mills to fly home to Maryland, after which he contacts Poitras and Greenwald to schedule the meeting.
With the help of journalist Ewen MacAskill , the information is disseminated to the press on June 5, , with additional leaks published in the following days.
However, the U. He is eventually granted asylum for three years, with Mills joining him at a later date. Snowden continues his activism.
When Oliver Stone was first approached to helm the film, he was hesitant. At the time, he was working on another controversial subject, about the last few years in the life of Martin Luther King Jr.
Bush — despite calling him the second worst President in U. It was a fictional book, but Stone developed an interest towards it and called it "very Fyodor Dostoyevsky ", in the sense that none of it is realistic.
Stone, who did not know if Snowden would cooperate, was undecided whether to make a fictional film with an unnamed character or a story as realistic as possible.
Stone began meeting with Snowden in January Stone went to meet Snowden two more times in late May of that year,  and Snowden finally agreed to the idea and even decided to take part.
Although he became involved in the project, he was given no script approval, nor did he receive any payment for the film. Payment was instead given to The Guardian.
On June 2, , it was announced that Stone and Moritz Borman had acquired the rights to the nonfiction book The Snowden Files by Luke Harding , and that Stone would write and direct a film based on it.
Before production began, Stone and Gordon-Levitt met Snowden in in Moscow, where he had been living in exile with his girlfriend, Lindsay Mills, since evading the U.
The U. It became extremely difficult for Stone, who had to finance everything along with the producer.
Going back to America would have meant that Stone would have had to cut four days of work, which he said he could not afford to do.
For his role as Snowden, Joseph Gordon-Levitt pledged to donate his entire salary from the film to "help facilitate the conversation" about the relationship between technology and democracy.
Principal photography began on February 16, in Munich , Germany. The house used to film is on the same street Snowden lived on.
Due to fear of interference by the National Security Agency , Stone decided to shoot the film mostly outside of the United States.
We didn't know what the NSA might do, so we ended up in Munich, which was a beautiful experience," Stone said. Peter Gabriel wrote the song "The Veil" exclusively for the film.
The track's video features photos and a cameo of Snowden as well as news coverage scenes and footage from the movie.
The studio did not give reasons for the delay; however, The Hollywood Reporter reported that maybe it was because the film was not finished yet.
It complements Citizenfour marvelously. It helps understand a lot of things". Stone held a private screening of Snowden at the former home of Ernest Hemingway in Sun Valley , for an invited audience of around two dozen, including actress Melissa Leo , who portrayed documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras.
Guests were required to sign non-disclosure agreements. The film received critical praise from the attendees, and one audience member was quoted saying, "What he did that's so brilliant is, he gave this kid's whole back story, so you really like him.
It marked the lowest opening of Oliver Stone's career for a film playing in over 2, theaters.
Snowden received mixed reviews from critics, although Gordon-Levitt's performance garnered critical praise.
The website's critical consensus reads, " Snowden boasts a thrilling fact-based tale and a solid lead performance from Joseph Gordon-Levitt, even if director Oliver Stone saps the story of some of its impact by playing it safe.
Richard Roeper gave the film three out of four stars, saying, " Snowden works best when it's just Edward and the three journalists in that hotel room, sweating it out, or when we see the pattern of events that led him to commit acts that exposed the shocking practices of our own government that also quite possibly created serious security breaches.
On November 19, , during the Camerimage festival, cinematographer Anthony Dod Mantle received the Bronze Frog award for his work on this film.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Snowden Theatrical release poster. Alex Marquez Lee Percy. France  Germany  United States .
Stillwell Ben Chaplin as Robert Tibbo. And that's very disturbing, if you think about its implications on any subject that is not overtly pro-American.
They say we have freedom of expression; but thought is financed, and thought is controlled, and the media is controlled.
This country is very tight on that, and there's no criticism allowed at a certain level. You can make movies about civil rights leaders who are dead, but it's not easy to make one about a current man.
British Board of Film Classification. November 18, Retrieved November 18, British Film Institute. Retrieved September 17, Box Office Mojo.
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